Emotional or psychological abuse refers to a pattern of behaviours (verbal or nonverbal) that result in humiliation, control and isolation, or intimidation (Government of Canada, 2015). The result is often shame, low self-esteem, self-blame, depression, hopelessness, terror.


Physical abuse or assault is the intentional use of force or aggression against someone. It may result in injury or even death in extreme cases.


Sexual assault or sexual violence may be part of a physical assault. Sexual assault refers to any form of unwanted sexual contact as defined in the Canadian Criminal Code sections 271-273 (Government of Canada). This includes kissing, touching, and intercourse of any type (oral, anal, vaginal). Sexual violence can also include being forced to participate in non-contact sexual activities such as watching pornography, or being sexually harassed, or experiencing sexual threats (CDC, 2015).


Consent is the clear communication, either verbally or non-verbally about willingness and agreement to engage in a particular activity.
Consent is a part of our everyday lives and our social interaction. When we want to go to the movies with a friend, we ask. When we are deciding with someone what to have for dinner, we talk about it and make a decision.
Consent helps us ensure that we are being good to each other and respecting one another.


Stalking is considered criminal harassment if it causes the person to fear for their safety or the safety of others (Canadian Criminal Code, section 264.1). Criminal harassment, also known as stalking, is a crime. It involves repeated conduct that makes someone fear for their safety or the safety of someone they care about.

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